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# Runs Created Calculator & Formula

In 1982, the baseball statistician Bill James developed the *Runs Created* sabermetric, abbreviated RC. Runs created is just what its name indicates, the number of runs that a player creates for his team, whether by direct or indirect action. It is a useful metric to compare with other batting metrics such as slugging percentage, on-base percentage, batting average, and extrapolated runs.

### Basic Formula

There are several formulas for computing RC depending on how many variables you want to consider. The simplest version of the formula isRC = TB(H + BB)/(AB + BB),

where TB is total bases, BB is bases on balls (walks), H is hits, and AB is at-bats. This formula multiplies the total bases achieved by an on-base factor (H + BB) and then divides by an opportunity factor (AB + BB).

If TB is not given in the stats tables, it can be computed with the formula

TB = H + 2B + 2*3B + 3*HR

### Alternate Version: Stolen Bases

Another version of RC takes into account the number of stolen bases, which creates a more realistic metric of a players ability to create runs:RC = (H + BB - CS)(TB + 0.55*SB)/(AB + BB).

In this formula, CS is caught stealing and SB is stolen bases. This is the RC formula programmed into the calculator above.

### Technical Refinements

James later created 14 more technical RC formulas that take into account all of the available offensive stats. These RC equations are known as Tech-1, Tech-2, etc. and each is applied to a particular period in American League and National League Baseball. Tech-1 can be applied to any year; its formula isHere, HBP is hits by pitch, GIDP is grounded into double play, IBB is intentional bases on balls, SF is sacrifice flies, and SH is sacrifice hits.

**Example Calculation:**A player's stats for one season are

1B = 55

2B = 20

3B = 5

HR = 40

(H = 120)

(TB = 270)

AB = 400

BB = 100

SB = 15

CS = 5

If we compute his runs created with the second formula, we have

RC = (120 + 100 - 5)(270 + 0.55*15)/(400 + 100)

= 215*278.25/500

= 120 (rounded to nearest whole number)

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